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IVF Regulations Worldwide

01. Eggs for assisted reproduction
02. Eggs for research
03. Inheritable genetic modification
04. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
05. Reproductive cloning
06. Research cloning
07. Sex selection
08. Surrogacy

Eggs for assisted reproduction

The first “test-tube baby” was born in England in 1978, and since that time this and other assisted reproductive techniques have become widespread throughout the world. Some countries prohibit all or most assisted reproduction practices, notably those that involve the creation and destruction of human embryos. Other countries permit and regulate these practices, but prohibit payment for women’s eggs used in the procedure beyond reimbursement for specified reasonable costs. At the present time no countries explicitly sanction the commercial sale of eggs for assisted reproduction, although in some countries the lack of regulatory oversight has allowed this practice to flourish.

 

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding the use of women’s eggs for assisted reproduction purposes.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • commercial prohibited: Commercial use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law, but non-commercial use is allowed.
  • commercial allowed: Commercial use of this practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but policies concerning compensation are unknown.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Population [<>] Eggs for assisted reproduction
Afghanistan Asia 31,889,900 ?
Albania Europe 3,600,520 ?
Algeria Africa 33,333,200 ?
Andorra Europe 71,822 ?
Angola Africa 15,941,000 ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America 82,786 ?
Argentina Latin America 40,301,927 no policy
Armenia Asia 3,229,900 ?
Australia Oceania 21,260,000 commercial prohibited
Austria Europe 8,316,490 PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia 8,653,000 ?
Bahamas Latin America 330,549 ?
Bahrain Asia 1,046,810 ?
Bangladesh Asia 150,448,000 ?
Barbados Latin America 279,000 ?
Belarus Europe 9,689,800 ?
Belgium Europe 10,584,500 commercial prohibited
Belize Latin America 314,275 ?
Benin Africa 8,439,000 ?
Bhutan Asia 672,425 ?
Bolivia Latin America 9,119,150 ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 3,981,240 ?
Botswana Africa 1,639,830 ?
Brazil Latin America 186,758,000 no policy
Brunei Asia 391,450 ?
Bulgaria Europe 7,933,000 ?
Burkina Faso Africa 13,228,000 ?
Burundi Africa 7,548,000 ?
Cambodia Asia 13,971,000 ?
Cameroon Africa 17,795,000 ?
Canada Northern America 33,255,000 commercial prohibited
Cape Verde Africa 499,796 ?
Central African Republic Africa 4,216,670 ?
Chad Africa 10,780,600 ?
Chile Latin America 16,598,100 no policy
China Asia 1.321852e+9 commercial prohibited
Columbia Latin America 44,087,000 no policy
Comoros Africa 798,000 ?
Cook Islands Oceania 18,700 ?
Costa Rica Latin America 4,133,880 ?
Croatia Europe 4,453,500 no policy
Cuba Latin America 11,394,000 ?
Cyprus Asia 788,457 ?
Czech Republic Europe 10,381,100 commercial prohibited
Côte d'Ivoire Africa 18,013,400 ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa 62,600,000 ?
Denmark Europe 5,475,790 commercial allowed
Djibouti Africa 496,374 ?
Dominica Latin America 71,727 ?
Dominican Republic Latin America 9,760,000 ?
Ecuador Latin America 13,755,700 no policy
Egypt Africa 80,335,000 no policy
El Salvador Latin America 6,600,000 ?
Equatorial Guinea Africa 504,000 ?
Eritrea Africa 4,401,010 ?
Estonia Europe 1,340,600 commercial prohibited
Ethiopia Africa 75,067,000 ?
Fiji Oceania 853,445 ?
Finland Europe 5,308,210 commercial prohibited
France Europe 64,473,100 commercial allowed
Gabon Africa 1,454,870 ?
Gambia Africa 1,700,000 ?
Georgia Asia 4,661,470 ?
Germany Europe 82,210,000 PROHIBITED
Ghana Africa 23,000,000 ?
Greece Europe 11,216,700 commercial prohibited
Grenada Latin America 110,000 ?
Guatemala Latin America 13,000,000 ?
Guinea Africa 9,402,000 ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa 1,586,000 ?
Guyana Latin America 751,000 ?
Haiti Latin America 8,706,500 ?
Honduras Latin America 7,483,760 ?
Hungary Europe 10,053,000 commercial allowed
Iceland Europe 316,252 ?
India Asia 1.132446e+9 no policy
Indonesia Asia 234,694,000 ?
Iran Asia 71,208,000 ?
Iraq Asia 29,267,000 ?
Ireland Europe 6,000,000 ?
Israel Asia 7,282,000 commercial prohibited
Italy Europe 59,448,200 PROHIBITED
Jamaica Latin America 2,651,000 ?
Japan Asia 127,433,494 PROHIBITED
Jordan Asia 6,053,190 no policy
Kazakhstan Asia 15,217,700 ?
Kenya Africa 34,707,800 ?
Kiribati Oceania 105,432 ?
Kuwait Asia 2,390,540 ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia 5,264,000 ?
Laos Asia 6,522,000 ?
Latvia Europe 2,270,700 permitted
Lebanon Asia 4,196,450 ?
Lesotho Africa 1,795,000 ?
Liberia Africa 3,386,000 ?
Libya Africa 6,173,580 ?
Liechtenstein Europe 35,365 ?
Lithuania Europe 3,369,600 ?
Luxembourg Europe 480,222 ?
Macedonia Europe 2,038,510 ?
Madagascar Africa 19,448,800 ?
Malawi Africa 12,884,000 ?
Malaysia Asia 27,496,000 no policy
Maldives Asia 300,000 ?
Mali Africa 11,995,400 ?
Malta Europe 402,000 ?
Marshall Islands Oceania 61,963 ?
Mauritania Africa 3,069,000 ?
Mauritius Africa 1,256,740 ?
Mexico Latin America 108,700,891 no policy
Micronesia Oceania 107,862 ?
Moldova Europe 4,128,050 ?
Monaco Europe 32,671 ?
Mongolia Asia 2,951,790 ?
Montenegro Europe 684,736 ?
Morocco Africa 33,757,200 no policy
Mozambique Africa 21,397,000 ?
Myanmar Asia 55,390,000 ?
Namibia Africa 1,820,920 ?
Nauru Oceania 9,275 ?
Nepal Asia 28,901,800 ?
Netherlands Europe 16,408,600 commercial prohibited
New Zealand Oceania 4,252,000 commercial prohibited
Nicaragua Latin America 5,603,000 ?
Niger Africa 13,957,000 ?
Nigeria Africa 148,000,000 ?
North Korea Asia 23,301,700 ?
Norway Europe 4,752,740 PROHIBITED
Oman Asia 3,204,900 ?
Pakistan Asia 169,300,000 ?
Palau Oceania 20,842 ?
Panama Latin America 3,320,000 ?
Papua New Guinea Oceania 6,300,000 ?
Paraguay Latin America 6,158,000 ?
Peru Latin America 28,674,800 no policy
Philippines Asia 90,500,000 no policy
Poland Europe 38,518,200 ?
Portugal Europe 10,848,700 no policy
Qatar Asia 907,229 ?
Republic of the Congo Africa 3,999,000 ?
Romania Europe 22,246,900 no policy
Russia Europe 142,008,838 commercial allowed
Rwanda Africa 10,186,100 ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America 42,696 ?
Saint Lucia Latin America 160,765 ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America 110,000 ?
Samoa Oceania 214,265 ?
San Marino Europe 29,615 ?
Sao Tome and Principe Africa 157,000 ?
Saudi Arabia Asia 27,601,000 ?
Senegal Africa 11,658,000 ?
Serbia Europe 10,150,300 ?
Seychelles Africa 80,699 ?
Sierra Leone Africa 5,900,000 ?
Singapore Asia 4,680,600 commercial prohibited
Slovakia Europe 5,447,502 ?
Slovenia Europe 2,023,360 commercial prohibited
Solomon Islands Oceania 552,438 ?
Somalia Africa 9,558,670 ?
South Africa Africa 43,700,000 no policy
South Korea Asia 49,044,790 commercial prohibited
Spain Europe 45,200,700 commercial allowed
Sri Lanka Asia 19,668,000 ?
Sudan Africa 39,379,400 ?
Suriname Latin America 470,784 ?
Swaziland Africa 1,032,000 ?
Sweden Europe 9,182,930 permitted
Switzerland Europe 7,591,400 PROHIBITED
Syrian Arab Republic Asia 19,405,000 ?
Taiwan Asia 22,911,000 commercial allowed
Tajikistan Asia 6,920,300 ?
Tanzania Africa 37,849,100 ?
Thailand Asia 63,038,200 no policy
Timor-Leste Asia 1,115,000 ?
Togo Africa 5,700,000 ?
Tonga Oceania 112,000 ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America 1,305,000 ?
Tunisia Africa 10,102,000 PROHIBITED
Turkey Asia 70,586,256 PROHIBITED
Turkmenistan Asia 5,110,020 ?
Tuvalu Oceania 11,992 ?
Uganda Africa 30,900,000 ?
Ukraine Europe 46,372,700 ?
United Arab Emirates Asia 46,372,700 ?
United Kingdom Europe 60,587,300 commercial prohibited
United States of America Northern America 304,072,000 no policy
Uruguay Latin America 3,460,610 no policy
Uzbekistan Asia 26,593,000 ?
Vanuatu Oceania 209,000 ?
Venezuela Latin America 28,199,800 no policy
Vietnam Asia 87,375,000 commercial prohibited
Yemen Africa 23,013,400 ?
Zambia Africa 11,668,000 ?
Zimbabwe Africa 13,010,000 ?

 

Eggs for research

Women’s eggs have been regularly used for scientific research since at least the 1960’s, when in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproduction techniques were being developed. The use of women’s eggs for research increased dramatically over the past decade as a consequence of the growing interest in embryonic stem cell research.

Some countries prohibit the use of women’s eggs for research. Others allow such use but prohibit payment for these eggs beyond reasonable compensation for expenses. Other countries have no laws or policies addressing either the use of women’s eggs or the level of compensation that is permitted.

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding the use of women’s eggs for scientific research.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • commercial prohibited: Commercial use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law, but non-commercial use is allowed.
  • commercial allowed: Commercial use of this practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but policies concerning compensation are unknown.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Eggs for research
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America no policy
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania commercial prohibited
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia ?
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe ?
Belgium Europe commercial prohibited
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe ?
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America no policy
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe ?
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America commercial prohibited
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America ?
China Asia commercial prohibited
Columbia Latin America ?
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America ?
Croatia Europe no policy
Cuba Latin America ?
Cyprus Asia ?
Czech Republic Europe ?
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe permitted
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America ?
Egypt Africa no policy
El Salvador Latin America ?
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe commercial prohibited
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe commercial prohibited
France Europe commercial prohibited
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia PROHIBITED
Germany Europe ?
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe commercial prohibited
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hungary Europe commercial allowed
Iceland Europe ?
India Asia no policy
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia ?
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe ?
Israel Asia commercial prohibited
Italy Europe PROHIBITED
Jamaica Latin America ?
Japan Asia commercial prohibited
Jordan Asia ?
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe permitted
Lebanon Asia ?
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe ?
Luxembourg Europe ?
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia ?
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America ?
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe ?
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe ?
Morocco Africa no policy
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe commercial prohibited
New Zealand Oceania commercial prohibited
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe PROHIBITED
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Panama Latin America ?
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America ?
Philippines Asia no policy
Poland Europe ?
Portugal Europe ?
Qatar Asia ?
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe ?
Russia Europe commercial allowed
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe ?
Sao Tome and Principe Africa ?
Saudi Arabia Asia ?
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia commercial prohibited
Slovakia Europe ?
Slovenia Europe ?
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa no policy
South Korea Asia commercial prohibited
Spain Europe commercial allowed
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe permitted
Switzerland Europe ?
Syrian Arab Republic Asia ?
Taiwan Asia commercial allowed
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia ?
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa ?
Turkey Asia ?
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe ?
United Arab Emirates Asia ?
United Kingdom Europe commercial prohibited
United States of America Northern America no policy
Uruguay Latin America ?
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America ?
Vietnam Asia ?
Yemen Africa ?
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?

Inheritable genetic modification

Inheritable genetic modification (IGM) means modifying the genes passed on to future generations. Although it is commonly used in experimentation with animals, IGM has not been attempted with humans. It would allow the creation and transmission of novel phenotypic traits, and would be by far the most consequential type of human genetic modification.

Many countries have adopted policies prohibiting IGM. Many more, however, have no policies in place addressing this practice.

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding the use of inheritable genetic modification.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • regulated: This practice is allowed and regulated by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but is not regulated.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Inheritable genetic modification
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America no policy
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania PROHIBITED
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia ?
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe ?
Belgium Europe PROHIBITED
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe PROHIBITED
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America PROHIBITED
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe PROHIBITED
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America PROHIBITED
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America ?
China Asia ?
Columbia Latin America PROHIBITED
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America PROHIBITED
Croatia Europe PROHIBITED
Cuba Latin America ?
Cyprus Asia PROHIBITED
Czech Republic Europe PROHIBITED
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe PROHIBITED
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America ?
Egypt Africa no policy
El Salvador Latin America ?
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe PROHIBITED
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe PROHIBITED
France Europe PROHIBITED
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia PROHIBITED
Germany Europe PROHIBITED
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe PROHIBITED
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hungary Europe PROHIBITED
Iceland Europe PROHIBITED
India Asia PROHIBITED
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia ?
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe ?
Israel Asia no policy
Italy Europe PROHIBITED
Jamaica Latin America ?
Japan Asia PROHIBITED
Jordan Asia ?
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe ?
Lebanon Asia ?
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe PROHIBITED
Luxembourg Europe ?
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia ?
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America ?
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe PROHIBITED
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe ?
Morocco Africa ?
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe PROHIBITED
New Zealand Oceania PROHIBITED
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe PROHIBITED
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Panama Latin America ?
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America PROHIBITED
Philippines Asia ?
Poland Europe PROHIBITED
Portugal Europe PROHIBITED
Qatar Asia ?
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe PROHIBITED
Russia Europe ?
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe PROHIBITED
Sao Tome and Principe Africa ?
Saudi Arabia Asia ?
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia ?
Slovakia Europe PROHIBITED
Slovenia Europe PROHIBITED
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa PROHIBITED
South Korea Asia PROHIBITED
Spain Europe PROHIBITED
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe PROHIBITED
Switzerland Europe PROHIBITED
Syrian Arab Republic Asia ?
Taiwan Asia ?
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia ?
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa ?
Turkey Asia PROHIBITED
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe ?
United Arab Emirates Asia ?
United Kingdom Europe PROHIBITED
United States of America Northern America no policy
Uruguay Latin America ?
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America ?
Vietnam Asia PROHIBITED
Yemen Africa ?
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure allowing embryos created through in vitro fertilization to be tested for the presence or absence of particular genes, so that embryos with preferred genes can be used to initiate a pregnancy. PGD was developed to allow couples at risk of passing on a serious genetic disease to have children free of the disease. Since its introduction in 1990, it has been most widely used to prevent the birth of children with conditions such as Down's syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell, and Huntington's chorea.

However, PGD can be used to select for non-disease, or “social,” conditions as well. Some people have chosen the sex of their child through use of PGD. It is currently difficult to apply PGD to most traits which depend on more that one gene or chromosome, but new technologies could make this easier.

Some countries prohibit all use of PGD. Others allow it but restrict it to non-social conditions. Many countries have no national-level laws or policies addressing PGD, and in some of these PGD is available for non-social use, most typically for sex-selection.

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • allowed: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but social uses are not prohibited.
  • social uses prohibited: Social (or nonmedical) use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America no policy
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania social uses prohibited
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia ?
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe ?
Belgium Europe social uses prohibited
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe social uses prohibited
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America no policy
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe social uses prohibited
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America social uses prohibited
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America no policy
China Asia social uses prohibited
Columbia Latin America no policy
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America ?
Croatia Europe social uses prohibited
Cuba Latin America ?
Cyprus Asia social uses prohibited
Czech Republic Europe social uses prohibited
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe social uses prohibited
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America ?
Egypt Africa no policy
El Salvador Latin America ?
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe social uses prohibited
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe social uses prohibited
France Europe social uses prohibited
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia social uses prohibited
Germany Europe PROHIBITED
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe social uses prohibited
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hungary Europe social uses prohibited
Iceland Europe social uses prohibited
India Asia social uses prohibited
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia ?
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe ?
Israel Asia social uses prohibited
Italy Europe social uses prohibited
Jamaica Latin America ?
Japan Asia no policy
Jordan Asia no policy
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe ?
Lebanon Asia ?
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe PROHIBITED
Luxembourg Europe ?
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia no policy
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America no policy
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe social uses prohibited
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe ?
Morocco Africa no policy
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe social uses prohibited
New Zealand Oceania social uses prohibited
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe social uses prohibited
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Panama Latin America ?
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America no policy
Philippines Asia ?
Poland Europe ?
Portugal Europe social uses prohibited
Qatar Asia ?
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe social uses prohibited
Russia Europe social uses prohibited
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe social uses prohibited
Sao Tome and Principe Africa ?
Saudi Arabia Asia ?
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia ?
Slovakia Europe social uses prohibited
Slovenia Europe social uses prohibited
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa no policy
South Korea Asia social uses prohibited
Spain Europe social uses prohibited
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe ?
Switzerland Europe PROHIBITED
Syrian Arab Republic Asia ?
Taiwan Asia ?
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia ?
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa ?
Turkey Asia social uses prohibited
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe ?
United Arab Emirates Asia ?
United Kingdom Europe social uses prohibited
United States of America Northern America no policy
Uruguay Latin America no policy
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America no policy
Vietnam Asia ?
Yemen Africa ?
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?

Reproductive cloning

Reproductive cloning is the production of a genetic duplicate of an existing or dead organism. A human clone would be a genetic copy of an existing or dead person. The procedure involves creation of a clonal zygote by inserting the nucleus of a (diploid) somatic cell into an egg cell from which the (haploid) nucleus has been removed. This process is called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With appropriate electrical and chemical stimulation, the clonal zygote will begin to differentiate, and if implanted in a women’s uterus could come to term. Although reproductive cloning of laboratory animals is now a common, it has proven difficult to create viable clonal human zygotes. Experiments with primates may suggest ways this difficulty might be overcome. Scientists, public officials and the general public have expressed strong opposition to human reproductive cloning, and many governmental and international bodies have adopted legislation banning this practice.

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding human reproductive cloning.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • regulated: This practice is allowed and regulated by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but is not regulated.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Reproductive cloning
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America PROHIBITED
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania PROHIBITED
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia ?
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe ?
Belgium Europe PROHIBITED
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe ?
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America PROHIBITED
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe PROHIBITED
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America PROHIBITED
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America ?
China Asia PROHIBITED
Columbia Latin America PROHIBITED
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America PROHIBITED
Croatia Europe PROHIBITED
Cuba Latin America PROHIBITED
Cyprus Asia PROHIBITED
Czech Republic Europe PROHIBITED
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe PROHIBITED
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America PROHIBITED
Egypt Africa ?
El Salvador Latin America PROHIBITED
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe PROHIBITED
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe PROHIBITED
France Europe PROHIBITED
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia PROHIBITED
Germany Europe PROHIBITED
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe PROHIBITED
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hungary Europe PROHIBITED
Iceland Europe PROHIBITED
India Asia PROHIBITED
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia ?
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe PROHIBITED
Israel Asia PROHIBITED
Italy Europe PROHIBITED
Jamaica Latin America ?
Japan Asia PROHIBITED
Jordan Asia ?
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe PROHIBITED
Lebanon Asia ?
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe PROHIBITED
Luxembourg Europe PROHIBITED
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia ?
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America PROHIBITED
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe PROHIBITED
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe ?
Morocco Africa ?
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe PROHIBITED
New Zealand Oceania PROHIBITED
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe PROHIBITED
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Panama Latin America PROHIBITED
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America PROHIBITED
Philippines Asia PROHIBITED
Poland Europe PROHIBITED
Portugal Europe PROHIBITED
Qatar Asia PROHIBITED
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe PROHIBITED
Russia Europe PROHIBITED
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe ?
Sao Tome and Principe Africa ?
Saudi Arabia Asia ?
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia PROHIBITED
Slovakia Europe PROHIBITED
Slovenia Europe PROHIBITED
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa PROHIBITED
South Korea Asia PROHIBITED
Spain Europe PROHIBITED
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe PROHIBITED
Switzerland Europe PROHIBITED
Syrian Arab Republic Asia ?
Taiwan Asia PROHIBITED
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia PROHIBITED
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa PROHIBITED
Turkey Asia no policy
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe PROHIBITED
United Arab Emirates Asia PROHIBITED
United Kingdom Europe PROHIBITED
United States of America Northern America no policy
Uruguay Latin America ?
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America ?
Vietnam Asia PROHIBITED
Yemen Africa ?
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?

Research cloning

Research cloning involves the creation of clonal human embryos for biomedical research rather than for the creation of clonal human beings. The creation of clonal human embryos would allow the derivation of genetically specific embryonic stem cells that could be useful in drug testing and perhaps in the creation of therapeutically useful tissues. The creation of clonal embryos involves the process know as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in which the nucleus of a (diploid) somatic cell is inserted into an egg cell from which the (haploid) nucleus has been removed. The resulting clonal embryo is induced to begin dividing with chemicals or electricity. Research cloning is controversial because it poses health risks to women who provide the necessary eggs, because the high demand for such eggs could lead to exploitation, and because the successful creation of viable clonal embryos would make reproductive cloning more feasible. Some countries prohibit research cloning. Others allow it but regulate the practice carefully. Still other countries have no national policies addressing research cloning but do have such policies at provincial levels. And many countries have no official policies at all.

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding research cloning.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • regulated: This practice is allowed and regulated by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but is not regulated.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Research cloning
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America PROHIBITED
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania regulated
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia ?
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe ?
Belgium Europe regulated
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe PROHIBITED
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America PROHIBITED
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe PROHIBITED
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America PROHIBITED
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America ?
China Asia regulated
Columbia Latin America PROHIBITED
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America PROHIBITED
Croatia Europe PROHIBITED
Cuba Latin America regulated
Cyprus Asia PROHIBITED
Czech Republic Europe PROHIBITED
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe PROHIBITED
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America PROHIBITED
Egypt Africa no policy
El Salvador Latin America PROHIBITED
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe PROHIBITED
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe regulated
France Europe PROHIBITED
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia PROHIBITED
Germany Europe PROHIBITED
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe PROHIBITED
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hungary Europe PROHIBITED
Iceland Europe PROHIBITED
India Asia regulated
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia PROHIBITED
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe PROHIBITED
Israel Asia permitted
Italy Europe PROHIBITED
Jamaica Latin America ?
Japan Asia regulated
Jordan Asia no policy
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe PROHIBITED
Lebanon Asia ?
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe PROHIBITED
Luxembourg Europe PROHIBITED
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia ?
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America PROHIBITED
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe PROHIBITED
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe ?
Morocco Africa ?
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe PROHIBITED
New Zealand Oceania PROHIBITED
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe PROHIBITED
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Panama Latin America PROHIBITED
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America PROHIBITED
Philippines Asia ?
Poland Europe PROHIBITED
Portugal Europe PROHIBITED
Qatar Asia PROHIBITED
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe PROHIBITED
Russia Europe PROHIBITED
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe PROHIBITED
Sao Tome and Principe Africa ?
Saudi Arabia Asia ?
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia regulated
Slovakia Europe PROHIBITED
Slovenia Europe PROHIBITED
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa permitted
South Korea Asia regulated
Spain Europe regulated
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe regulated
Switzerland Europe PROHIBITED
Syrian Arab Republic Asia ?
Taiwan Asia PROHIBITED
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia regulated
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa PROHIBITED
Turkey Asia no policy
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe ?
United Arab Emirates Asia PROHIBITED
United Kingdom Europe regulated
United States of America Northern America no policy
Uruguay Latin America ?
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America ?
Vietnam Asia PROHIBITED
Yemen Africa ?
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?

Sex selection

Sex selection means choosing the sex of a future child, either before or after conception. In many countries it is used to promote the birth of boys. Sex selection is most commonly attempted through pre-natal testing and abortion. In recent years new technologies such preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and sperm-sorting have been developed and promoted. Sex selection raises concerns about exacerbating sex discrimination against women, and about normalizing the "selection" and "design" of children.

Some countries prohibit all sex selection. Others allow it when there is a risk that a fetus might have a serious sex-linked disease, but prohibit it for non-medical or “social” reasons. Still others have no official policies addressing sex selection.

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding sex selection.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • allowed: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but social uses are not prohibited.
  • social uses prohibited: Social (or nonmedical) use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Sex selection
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America no policy
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania social uses prohibited
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia ?
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe ?
Belgium Europe social uses prohibited
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe social uses prohibited
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America no policy
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe social uses prohibited
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America social uses prohibited
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America ?
China Asia social uses prohibited
Columbia Latin America no policy
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America ?
Croatia Europe social uses prohibited
Cuba Latin America ?
Cyprus Asia social uses prohibited
Czech Republic Europe social uses prohibited
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe social uses prohibited
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America no policy
Egypt Africa no policy
El Salvador Latin America ?
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe social uses prohibited
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe social uses prohibited
France Europe social uses prohibited
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia ?
Germany Europe social uses prohibited
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe social uses prohibited
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hungary Europe social uses prohibited
Iceland Europe social uses prohibited
India Asia social uses prohibited
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia ?
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe ?
Israel Asia social uses prohibited
Italy Europe social uses prohibited
Jamaica Latin America ?
Japan Asia no policy
Jordan Asia no policy
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe social uses prohibited
Lebanon Asia ?
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe social uses prohibited
Luxembourg Europe ?
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia ?
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America ?
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe ?
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe ?
Morocco Africa ?
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe social uses prohibited
New Zealand Oceania PROHIBITED
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe social uses prohibited
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Panama Latin America ?
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America ?
Philippines Asia ?
Poland Europe ?
Portugal Europe social uses prohibited
Qatar Asia ?
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe ?
Russia Europe social uses prohibited
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe social uses prohibited
Sao Tome and Principe Africa ?
Saudi Arabia Asia ?
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia social uses prohibited
Slovakia Europe ?
Slovenia Europe ?
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa no policy
South Korea Asia PROHIBITED
Spain Europe social uses prohibited
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe ?
Switzerland Europe PROHIBITED
Syrian Arab Republic Asia ?
Taiwan Asia ?
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia ?
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa ?
Turkey Asia social uses prohibited
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe ?
United Arab Emirates Asia ?
United Kingdom Europe social uses prohibited
United States of America Northern America no policy
Uruguay Latin America ?
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America ?
Vietnam Asia PROHIBITED
Yemen Africa ?
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?

Surrogacy

Surrogacy is the process through which a women carries to term a child conceived with the egg of another woman. It is most often used to allow women who are unable to carry a child, but whose eggs are viable, to have a genetically-related child. Many surrogacies involve no financial considerations between the parties involved. In other cases there may be an agreement to compensate the surrogate for expenses and, perhaps, lost wages, involved while carrying the child. In still other surrogacies compensation may be agreed to that is more than compensatory.

Some countries prohibit all surrogacy arrangements. In other countries the practice is allowed, but compensation is limited to expenses, and perhaps lost wages. Still other countries have no regulations and market-like conditions prevail.

Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding surrogacy.

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • commercial prohibited: Commercial use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law, but non-commercial use is allowed.
  • commercial allowed: Commercial use of this practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but policies concerning compensation are unknown.
  • unrecognized: Surrogacy contracts are explicitly unrecognized by national law or by other mechanism which carries the force of law.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.  

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

[<>] Country [<>] Region [<>] Surrogacy
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America no policy
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania commercial prohibited; unrecognized
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia ?
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe ?
Belgium Europe no policy
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe ?
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America no policy
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe ?
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America commercial prohibited
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America ?
China Asia PROHIBITED
Columbia Latin America no policy
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America ?
Croatia Europe no policy
Cuba Latin America ?
Cyprus Asia ?
Czech Republic Europe no policy
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe commercial prohibited; unrecognized
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America no policy
Egypt Africa no policy
El Salvador Latin America ?
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe ?
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe PROHIBITED
France Europe PROHIBITED
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia ?
Germany Europe PROHIBITED
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe commercial prohibited
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hungary Europe permitted
Iceland Europe ?
India Asia commercial allowed
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia ?
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe ?
Israel Asia commercial prohibited
Italy Europe PROHIBITED
Jamaica Latin America ?
Japan Asia unrecognized
Jordan Asia no policy
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe PROHIBITED
Lebanon Asia ?
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe ?
Luxembourg Europe ?
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia no policy
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America ?
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe ?
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe ?
Morocco Africa no policy
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe commercial prohibited
New Zealand Oceania commercial prohibited; unrecognized
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe PROHIBITED
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Panama Latin America ?
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America no policy
Philippines Asia no policy
Poland Europe PROHIBITED
Portugal Europe no policy
Qatar Asia ?
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe no policy
Russia Europe commercial allowed
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe ?
Sao Tome and Principe Africa ?
Saudi Arabia Asia ?
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia PROHIBITED
Slovakia Europe ?
Slovenia Europe PROHIBITED
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa no policy
South Korea Asia no policy
Spain Europe unrecognized
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe PROHIBITED
Switzerland Europe PROHIBITED
Syrian Arab Republic Asia ?
Taiwan Asia PROHIBITED
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia no policy
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa PROHIBITED
Turkey Asia PROHIBITED
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe commercial allowed
United Arab Emirates Asia ?
United Kingdom Europe commercial prohibited
United States of America Northern America no policy
Uruguay Latin America no policy
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America no policy
Vietnam Asia PROHIBITED
Yemen Africa ?
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?

IVF NEWS

Suvey on embryology profession/education New
Attention to all IVF lab professionals... We are c.....
Posted on : November 9, 2016   by:Dr. Alex Varghese


Dates 2015

4 - 6
Dec

Annual Meeting of the Middle East Fertility Society

Location: Liege, Belgium
More information